The central government budget bill forecasts the revenues and expenditures of the government for the next fiscal year. It authorizes and permits the executive organ on collecting the revenues and spending the expenditures. The fiscal year starts on the first day of January and ends on the last day of December.
There are three types of budget under the scope of general government budget, which are; central government budget, social security institutions budget and local government’s budget. Parliament deliberates “central government budget”. The central government budget consists of general budget, special budget, and budget of regulatory and supervisory institutions. Public organs cannot prepare another type of budget that is different from the above-mentioned budgets. The general budget institutions, does not have the authority to collect revenue by themselves. The special budget institutions have the authority to collect and spend some special revenues by law. Lastly, regulatory and supervisory institutions regulate a special area and have the authority to apply some sanctions on that area by law.
According to the Article 161 of the Constitution, The President shall submit the budget bill to the Grand National Assembly of Türkiye, 75 days before the fiscal year. According to the constitution, budget bill and the final accounts bill are the only bills which can be submitted by the President. The Plan and Budget Committee is the only standing committee which deliberates the budget bill. Committee has 55 days before the Plenary. And then the Budget Bill has to be debated and concluded in the Plenary before the first day of the fiscal year.
The central government budget bill and the final accounts bill shall be deliberated and adopted together in the Committee and Plenary according to the constitution. On the first day of the debates, the executive body makes a presentation. The presentation is generally about local and international macroeconomic changes, basic specifics of the next year’s budget and main priorities of the executive body. The press and public follow this presentation and the rest of the Committee debates intensively. Usually after the presentation, Committee continues the debates likely a week later. As Türkiye passed to the program-based budget system, public institutions budgets are submitted by programs. The first and second articles of the both bills are read out, and the statements of revenues and expenditures of public institutions are debated in rounds and public institutions programs are voted on total numbers. After these deliberations, other articles of the bills are debated and decided as per the ordinary procedure for the private members bill. After the final speeches have been completed, the bills are put to an open vote.
In the Plenary deputies cannot initiate motions of amendment that envisage an increase in expenditures or a decrease in revenues. There are not any limitations for amendments in committee stage.
The budget law of the central budget is published in the Official Gazette before the first day of the fiscal year. According to the constitution, The President shall not veto and return both of the bills to the Parliament.
Enacting the Final Accounts Bill and the Court of Account Reports
The budget of the previous year is finalized by the Final Account Bill. The final account is a mechanism that indicates the final state of budgetary revenues and expenditures which gives an opportunity to the Parliament to oversee the government expenditures. Adoption of the Final Account Bill means that the spending authority granted to the government is used in accordance with the laws, and in an effective, efficient and economic manner. There are also institutional audit reports which Court of Account prepares and submits to the Parliament. These reports are also deliberated and discussed during that institutions budget and final account discussions.
The Final Account Bill is submitted by The Presidency. The Final Account Bill is submitted to the Assembly within six months after the end of the fiscal year, which it belongs to, and is put on the agenda of the Committee on Plan and Budget with the budget bill of the new fiscal year. The Committee presents its report on the Final Account Bill and the Budget Bill together to the Plenary.
The Plenary debates and adopts on the Final Account Bill together with the budget bill. The submission of the Final Account Bill to the Assembly does not prevent the auditing and account trial, which is not concluded by the Court of Accounts.