1. Types of Committees
Committees are organs consisting of a certain number of deputies designated by taking their expertise into consideration and examining the texts to be debated in the Plenary. After the bills have been examined and debated in the committees, they are submitted to the Plenary.
The committees have been established by the Constitution, the Rules of Procedure, or the laws. Committees are classified into two categories in terms of their duration as ad hoc committees and standing committees. Standing committees are also known as “specialized committees.” Ad hoc committees are established for a certain period of time in order to obtain information and perform supervisory functions.
Some of the standing committees merely deal with lawmaking, whereas some of them do not debate any bill but perform the duties undertaken by laws. Besides, some have special powers and duties.
Individual applications can be made to the Committee on Human Rights Inquiry, the Committee on Petitions, and the Committee on Equal Opportunity for Women and Men.
2. Election of the Committee Members
The Plenary determines the number of members of the standing committees at the beginning of each legislative term to enable the representation of party groups according to their strength. However, the number of members of the Committee on Plan and Budget is stipulated in the Constitution as 40, and the number of members of the Committee on Public Economic Enterprises is foreseen in its founding law as 35.
The Constitution states that the provisions of the Rules of Procedure shall be regulated in a way that ensures the participation of the political party groups in all parliamentary activities according to the ratio of numbers of their members.
The Rules of Procedure also regulate that the number of memberships allocated to each political party group in the committees shall be determined according to the percentage of each political party group within the party groups’ total number of members in the Assembly.
Furthermore, it is envisaged in the founding laws of some of the committees that deputies who belong to a political party not having a party group, and independent deputies shall be represented in the committees in the ratio of their numbers to the numbers of the political party groups. Within this mindset, the allocation of the members to the committees is decided by the Plenary upon the determination of the Speaker and a proposal of the Board of Spokespersons.
The Speaker informs the political party groups of the number allocated to them for each committee and requests them to nominate their candidates within a certain period. The political party groups determine their candidates for the committees by taking their expertise into consideration. The list of members submitted by the party groups is voted on in the Plenary.
The deputies who belong to a political party not having a party group and independent deputies may be members of the Committee on Plan and Budget, the Committee on Human Rights Inquiry, the Committee on EU harmonization, the Committee on Public Economic Enterprises, and the Committee on Equal Opportunity for Women and Men according to their size. The memberships of the committees falling to the deputies who belong to a political party not having a party group and independent deputies are announced and a certain period is determined for the candidacy. In case there is only one candidate, the election is held through show of hands, and if there is more than one candidate, the election is held by using joint ballot papers.
The members of the Council of Ministers and the Bureau cannot be members of any committee; and the members of the Committee on Plan and Budget and the Committee on Petitions cannot be members of other committees.
The committees whose members are elected are summoned by the Speaker to elect their chairpersons, deputy chairpersons, spokespersons and secretaries from among their members.
The committees shall meet with the absolute majority of the total number of members and decide by the vote of the absolute majority of the members present. The election is held by secret vote.
Two elections are held for the committees within a legislative term. The term of office of the committee members elected at the beginning of the legislative term is two years and the elections are renewed at the end of this period.