Right to Introduce Bills

The right to introduce bills belongs to the deputies. Bills might be introduced with one or more than one deputy’s signature. The only bills that introduced by the President of the Republic are the Budget Bill and the Final Accounts Bill.

Requirements for the Bills

The bills must be drafted in accordance with the requirements provided in the Rules of Procedure. These requirements are as follows;

· Signature: Bills must include the signature of at least one deputy.

· Explanatory Memoranda: The bills are introduced with their explanatory memoranda. The reasons for drafting the bill are explained in the explanatory memoranda of the bill. The reasons for new provisions or articles that are repealed, amended or added are explicitly specified in the justification of each article.

· The text of the bill: The text of the bill including articles appears after the explanatory memoranda. The text appears under an appropriate title.

· Not including abusive and insulting remarks: The bills shall not include abusive and insulting language.

· Restriction on the bills that are rejected by the Plenary: The bills that are rejected by the Plenary cannot be introduced sooner than one year from the date of rejection within the same legislative term.

The introductory part including the signatures, explanatory memorandum, and the text appear on separate pages.

The parts that must be included in the bills are the introduction page, explanatory memoranda, justification of articles, text of bill (title and articles, tables and lists, if any)

Deliberations in Committees

Main Committee and Secondary Committee

The committees that examine bills are classified into two groups as “main committees” and “secondary committees.” The committee whose report and bill is considered in Plenary is designated as the main committee, and the committee that provides an opinion to the main committee is designated as the secondary committee. Bills can be referred to more than one secondary committee, but only one committee may be designated as the main committee according to the bill’s content. The main committee has to debate the whole bill. The secondary committee provides an opinion on the aspects or articles of the bill that are relevant to the committee if specific aspects or articles to be debated are not stated during the referral.

Referral of Bills to the Committees

The Office of the Speaker determines the committees that will examine the bill and designates the main and secondary committees. Bills are referred to the main and secondary committees at the same time. The bills are referred to the relevant committees in accordance with the competences of the committees, laws and practices by considering the subject, purpose and scope of the bills. The secondary committee has to conclude an examination of the subject within 10 days. This period can be shortened or expanded for a maximum of 10 days by the Office of the Speaker at the request of the committee. The main committee concludes its report even if the secondary committee fails to provide an opinion within the required period.

Committee Meetings and Agenda

The committees are summoned by the chairperson of the committee on his or her own initiative or at the request of one-third of the committee members in order to debate the subjects referred to them by the Office of the Speaker. In cases when the chairperson calls for a meeting, he or she also specifies the agenda of the meeting with this call. The committee has the final say on its own agenda. The committee decides about the items to be included in the agenda on the proposals of the committee members.

The meeting call and the agenda are sent to the committee members, the Presidency of the Republic, political party groups, the offices of related committees and to the first signatory deputy whose proposal is placed on the agenda. The meeting call and agenda are also announced on the electronic notice board and on the website of the Assembly.

The committees shall debate the subjects referred to them in a specific period. If there is no necessity, the committees are called for the meeting at least two days in advance. The committees start the debate on the subjects only 48 hours after the date of their referral. The documents referred to the committees shall be printed and distributed to the committee members by the chairperson. In this case, the mentioned period starts after the distribution of the documents. In cases when the Board of Spokespersons requests or when the bill as a whole or some articles of the bill are sent back to the committee or withdrawn by the committee, this period may be ignored.

The Time Periods for Committee Debate

The debate on the bill can start 48 hours after the date of referral. The advice of the Board of Spokespersons is required in order to start the debate on the subject before 48 hours have passed.

The debate on the bill has to be concluded by the main committee within 45 days after the date of referral. By a petition submitted to the Office of the Speaker, the deputy sponsoring bill may request that the bill has not been debated in that period. In such cases, this request is voted by the Plenary to be placed on the agenda of the Plenary. These requests are included in the agenda of the Plenary under the section “Presentation of the Office of the Speaker to the Plenary.”

During the debate in the Plenary, the committee, the sponsor of the bill and a deputy may have the floor for a maximum of five minutes. After the debate, voting by show of hands takes place to decide whether the subject is to be included in the agenda of the Plenary or not. If the request of the sponsor of the bill is accepted by the Plenary, the bill is put on the agenda of the Plenary without deliberation in the committee.

Attendance of the Committee Meetings

The committee meetings are open to all deputies, vice presidents, ministers, vice ministers, and high-ranking executives.

The chairpersons of the committees may invite experts to present their opinions and may also invite the representatives of relevant public institutions and NGOs to do so. The legislative experts also attend committee meetings to provide legal and technical support.

Speeches in the Committee Meetings

The speakers are granted leave to speak in the committee meetings in the order of request. The chairpersons of the committees, vice presidents, ministers, vice ministers, and high-ranking executives are not subject to the order of request. When necessary, the chairpersons may give the floor to the experts summoned to the committee meetings.

The deputies who are not committee members may take the floor with permission, but they cannot vote and table motions of amendment. The deputies may obtain and read the committee documents even if they are not committee members.

Deliberation of Bills in the Committees

First, the debate on the whole bill takes place. After deliberating the whole bill, a vote is taken on whether to move on to the articles or not. If proceeding to the articles is not accepted, the bill is deemed as rejected. If moving on to the articles is accepted, a debate on each article starts separately. Each article is voted on after the speeches on the article end and motions of amendments are processed. The articles that are not accepted are removed from the text. After completing the debate and voting on all articles, voting on the bill as a whole takes place.

The committees may accept the bills with or without amendments or reject them. When the motions of amendments tabled by committee members are accepted, the text of the bill is amended accordingly. The right to table motions of amendment and to vote belongs to the committee members only.

Preparation of Motions of Amendment in the Committees

The motions of amendment are prepared as petitions to be submitted to the Office of the Committee. Motions must be signed by at least one committee member. Motions must also include the justification of the suggested amendment. An amendment to only one article can be proposed by a motion. The removal or the total or partial amendment of an article and the addition of supplementary or provisional articles can be proposed by a motion.

Quorum and Majority for Decision

The quorum for committee meetings is one-third of the total membership. The committees decide with the absolute majority of the members present. As the number of members present at the meeting increases, so does the required majority for the decision.

However, as stated by their special laws, the Committee on Public Economic Enterprises, the Committee on the Inquiry of Human Rights, the Committee on European Union Harmonization, and the Committee on the Equality of Opportunity for Women and Men can decide by an absolute majority of the members present provided that that majority is not less than one more than one-fourth of the total number of members.

Formation of Sub-Committees

The committees may set up sub-committees when the bills are more comprehensive or controversial or when a more detailed examination of the bill is deemed necessary. Sub-committees function as the forums where an agreed text can be prepared after a detailed and technical examination of the bill. The provisions of the Constitution, the Rules of Procedure, and parliamentary practices are applied during the sub-committee’s work by analogy. The committees usually continue their work on the report and the text adopted by the sub-committees.

Committee Reports

The committees prepare a report on the subjects decided upon. They may reject or accept the subject under deliberation. In both cases, they are required to prepare a report. The Rules of Procedure states that committee reports shall be written by the chairperson or spokesperson of the committee or a special spokesperson elected for this purpose. Legislative experts also assist in writing committee reports. Committee reports are submitted to the Office of the Speaker.

Committee reports are signed by the deputies taking part in the final vote. Those who attended previous meetings of the committee but failed to be present during the final vote can sign the report by stating their dissenting opinions. However, the fact that they have not attended the final voting shall be stated in the report.

Committee members who signed the committee report can speak against the committee report or submit questions to the spokesperson of the committee only on subjects other than those on which he or she expressed his or her objection or abstention in the committee report.

The committee report is composed of two sections. All the opinions on the bills expressed, amendments (with their justifications) in the committees, and the manner in which the members cast their votes during the final vote are included in the first section of the report. Objections to the committee report by dissenting members are included in the final section.

The second section of the report consists of the original text of the bill and the text of the bill accepted by the committee. If the committee does not make any amendment, it is stated in the text that the article is accepted without any amendment. Amended articles are re-written with amendments.

Committee reports are printed and distributed to the deputies, and published on the web page of the Assembly. Committee reports printed are annexed to the minutes of the first sitting when deliberation on the report starts in the Plenary.

In cases when more than two bills are combined, the bills are also included in the printed committee report. In the final section of the report, the text of the bill as adopted by the committee and the original version of the bill appear. The Plenary debates on the text of the bill as adopted by the committee.

Re-deliberation of the Bills in the Committees

Before completing the deliberation on an item of the agenda, the committee may decide to re-deliberate the specific topics related to that subject by the vote of the absolute majority of the committee members present.

The committee can decide on the re-deliberation of the item at once at the written and justified request of an absolute majority of the total number of committee members just before the committee report is submitted to the Office of the Speaker. After the report has been submitted to the Office of the Speaker and included in the agenda of the Plenary, it can be re-deliberated in the committee only at the request of the main committee .

Deliberations in the Plenary

Including Bills on the Agenda of the Plenary

The bill is submitted to the Office of the Speaker after the main committee to which the bill is referred has concluded its report. The committee reports are numbered and printed. After this stage, the committee reports are followed according to their numbers. The committee reports are distributed to the political party groups, committees and deputies, published in the Order Paper and put on the web page of the Assembly. The committee reports shall not be put on the agenda of the Plenary sooner than 48 hours after their distribution. After 48 hours have been elapsed, the relevant report is put on the agenda as the last item of the part on “Bills and other items from the Committees.” However, the Plenary may put the report on the agenda and change the sequence of the report on the agenda before 48 hours have expired upon a proposal of the Board of Spokespersons.

Deliberations of Committee Report

The deliberation on the bill begins only if the main committee is present in the Plenary. The Speaker asks whether the main committee is present. The committees are represented by the chairperson or vice-chairperson or the spokesperson(s) designated for that purpose. If the main committee is not present, the debate shall not start.

The representative of the committee may request to reject the motions, demanding an amendment to the bill drafted by the committee, or request motions to be referred back to the committee. However, the representative may accept the motions only if a sufficient number of committee members required for the quorum is present and provides opinions in favor thereof.

Plenary debates are broadcasted live via Parliament TV and the web page of the Assembly unless decided otherwise.

Procedures for Deliberation on Bills in the Plenary

The deliberations on the bills are composed of four parts: speeches, questions-answers, the motion process, and voting.

The process starts with a debate on the bill as a whole. The committees and representatives of political party groups may have the floor for twenty minutes, and two deputies may have the floor for ten minutes to deliver their speeches on the whole bill. Later, voting takes place on whether the deliberation on the articles begins after a question-answer period of twenty minutes. If the Plenary decides not to continue with the debate on articles, the bill is deemed as rejected.

If the Plenary decides to continue deliberation on the articles, deliberations start. Committees and political party groups may have the floor for ten minutes and two deputies for five minutes on each article. The question-answer period on the articles is ten minutes. After the question-answer period, motions are processed. Each article is voted on separately.

If a motion concerning the continuation of debates is tabled before the question-answer procedure on the articles and the bill as a whole takes place, and if the motion is accepted by the Plenary, the political party groups and deputies are given the floor for the second time. In this case, speakers can have the floor for a period of no more than half of the first speaking time.

If requested, two deputies, one in favor and the other against the bill, may have the floor to express the manner in which they will vote before the voting on the whole bill takes place. After these speeches, the whole bill is put to the vote. If accepted, the bill becomes a law.

Leave to Speak and Order of Speeches

The deputies request leave to speak by a written application directed to the Office of the Speaker. Besides the number of the committee report and the articles on which the speech will be delivered, the direction of the speech (in favor or against) must be indicated in the application.

During the debates, the representatives of political party groups and two deputies in their own capacities are granted leave to speak in the order of request. Deputies cannot have the floor before political party groups. If more than two deputies request leave to speak at the same time in their own capacities, the speaker will be determined by lot.

The secretaries record all requests for leave to speak only if the requests are about the subjects on the agenda and subjects known to be on the agenda on a specific day in accordance with the Constitution, laws and the Rules of Procedure. In practice, the requests for leave to speak on the bills are received by the Department of Laws and Resolutions immediately after the distribution of committee reports to the deputies.

A deputy may delegate his or her right to speak to another deputy.

The main committee have the priority in the order of speeches. As a rule, deputies have the final say.

Motions of Amendment

A motion of amendment is the proposal with justification submitted by deputies, or the main committee aiming to change, to repeal an article of the bill partly or as a whole, or to add a supplementary or provisional article to the text.

Motions of amendment are directed to the Office of the Speaker. Provisions that are requested to be amended, repealed or added, must be clearly indicated in the motions of amendment. Unclear and conditional motions are not processed.

The motions of amendment must be submitted with their justifications. If the motion of amendment exceeds 500 words, the owner of the motion must append a summary to the motion. In that case, the summary is read out in the Plenary. The whole motion is attached to the minutes.

Deputies who supported and signed the committee report cannot table a motion of amendment on that subject.

Motions of amendments can be tabled only by one deputy within a period from the distribution of the committee report to the commencement of debates on that topic. However, if the debates have started, at least five deputies may table a motion of amendment. The motions of amendment may be tabled before the motion process of the articles starts.

Deputies cannot table more than seven motions of amendments on each article including the motions claiming the unconstitutionality of the bills. However, the right of the deputies belonging to the political party groups to table a motion of amendment is reserved. If that right is not used by deputies that are members of political party groups, other deputies that are not members of political party groups and independents also have the right to table an additional motion of amendment.

The motions of amendments that are not related to the subject matter of the bill under debate and that envisage an amendment or addition to another bill, are considered as a new bill and are not processed.

If the motion requiring an amendment to an article of the bill under debate, which is not stated in the committee report but closely related to the bill, has the support of the absolute majority of the committee, a debate on the motion is opened as a new article. First, motions envisaging a new article are read out. If the absolute majority of committee members are not present, these motions are not processed. If an absolute majority of the committee members support the motion of amendment, the motion is processed as a new article.

A copy of motions of an amendment is distributed to the committee, the political party groups, and stenographs. Motions of amendments are read out and processed in the order of submission and the degree of inconsistency. After the motion is read out, the Speaker asks the committee whether it agrees with the motion or not. The committee may explain the reasons for the disagreement. If the committee disagrees with the motion, the sponsor of the motion may have the floor for five minutes. After that, the motion is voted for by show of hands. If the motion is accepted, the article with its amendment is put to the vote.

Vote on the whole bill and articles

There are three forms of vote in the Plenary: vote by show of hands, an open vote, and a secret vote. The Constitution, laws and the Rules of Procedure state how the items shall be voted for.

Except constitutional amendments, all votes on the bills or articles that are not subject to the open vote are conducted by open vote if 20 deputies request to do so, otherwise by show of hands.

Vote by show of hands

The vote by show of hands is conducted by deputies raising their hands. The votes of the deputies are not recorded. A vote by show of hands as a rule shall be conducted in all cases where an open or a secret vote is not required in the Constitution, laws and the Rules of Procedure. Regarding matters which, according to the Rules of Procedure, have to be voted on by show of hands, it is obligatory to conduct a vote by show of hands.

During a vote by show of hands, the Speaker and the secretaries count and together identify those who raise their hands in favor of and against the matter voted on. In case there is a disagreement among them or if the votes cannot be identified by them, the Speaker announces that the vote will be repeated by electronic devices. The result is announced by the Speaker stating “adopted” or “not adopted.”

Open Vote

An open vote is conducted by electronic devices. A list indicating the manner in which each deputy voted is attached to the minutes of the Assembly. The cases in which the open vote shall be conducted are clearly listed by the Rules of Procedure. Except these cases, an open vote on the bills is subject to the written request of at least 20 deputies provided that voting by show of hands or secret vote is not obligatory as per the Constitution, laws and the Rules of Procedure.

Voting on budget and final account bills, bills including fiscal provisions and obligations, approval of the ratification of international treaties, development plans and other issues specified by obligatory provisions of the Rules of Procedure, is conducted by open vote. In an open vote, deputies vote as “accepted,” “rejected” or “abstention.”

Secret Vote

In a secret vote, the manner in which the deputies vote is never identified and recorded. The deputies are given an envelope and a red (rejection), white (adoption) and green (abstention) ballot paper and are asked to place one of these ballot papers into the envelope in a closed polling booth.

The votes are counted by the quaestors in the Bureau of that Plenary sitting. The results are announced to the Plenary as “accepted,” “rejected,” “abstention,” “blank” and “invalid.”

The bills on constitutional amendments, motions of parliamentary investigation and reports of the Committee of Investigation are decided by secret vote.

Basic Law (A Special Legislative Procedure)

An urgent legislative process is envisaged by Article 91 of the Rules of Procedure for comprehensive bills. According to this Article, bills amending an existing law completely or comprehensively and putting the laws into force and those proposals amending the Rules of Procedure may be debated and voted on through a special procedure. These bills shall be about the laws including general principles that systematically amend a particular branch of law completely or comprehensively. They relate to a considerable part of personal and social life; indicate the basic concepts of special laws in their own fields; ensure harmony in practice among special laws; necessitate the protection of integrity and relations between the articles in terms of areas they regulate; and are subjected to special debating and voting procedure in the previous legislative process.

The Plenary decides which bills are debated as “basic law” upon the proposal of the Board of Spokespersons or the party groups. First, a debate on the whole bill is opened and a vote is taken on whether the Plenary should move on to articles. If moving to a debate on articles is accepted, the chapters are debated. The bill is divided into chapters not exceeding more than thirty articles. In this procedure, the articles are not debated separately, but speeches are made and the question-answer process is followed on the chapters. Question-answer time on chapters is limited to fifteen minutes. Deputies have the right to table at most two motions on the article including the motions regarding unconstitutionality. However, the right of deputies of each political party group to table one motion is reserved. In this procedure, articles are not read out, motions of amendments are processed, and articles are voted on without a debate. After the chapters have been debated and all articles have been voted on, voting on the bill as a whole takes place.

Constitutional Amendments

Constitutional amendments may be introduced only by at least one-third of the total number of deputies (at least 200) in the Assembly.

The bills amending the Constitution are debated twice in the Plenary. The constitutional amendments are adopted by the secret votes of at least three-fifths of the total number of deputies (360 deputies).

The President of the Republic may send the laws amending the Constitution back to the Assembly for re-consideration. If the Assembly accepts the law sent back to the Assembly by the majority of two-thirds of the total number of deputies, the President may submit the law to a referendum. If a law amending the Constitution is adopted by three-fifths (360) or less than a two-third majority (400) of the total number of votes of the Assembly and is not sent back to the Assembly by the President, it is published in the Official Gazette to be submitted to a referendum.

A law amending the adopted Constitution, directly or after the President’s return, by a two-thirds majority of the total number of members (400) of the Assembly, or its articles as considered necessary, may be submitted to referendum by the President. Laws or related articles of the constitutional amendment that are not submitted to a referendum shall be published in the Official Gazette.

The Grand National Assembly of Türkiye, when adopting the laws related to the constitutional amendment, shall also decide on which provisions shall be submitted to a referendum together or separately.

The bills on the constitutional amendments are debated and adopted as per the provisions valid for ordinary bills except the above-mentioned provisions.

Presidential Decrees

According to the Constitution the President of the Republic might issue presidential decrees on the matters stated in the Constitution mostly regarding executive power without approval of Assembly. He or she cannot regulate fundamental rights, individual rights and duties included in the first and second chapters and the political rights and duties listed in the fourth chapter of the second part of the Constitution with presidential decree. Presidential decree cannot be issued on the matters explicitly regulated by law. In the case of a discrepancy between provisions of the presidential decrees and the laws, the provisions of the laws shall prevail. A presidential decree shall become null and void if the Assembly enacts a law on the same matter.

The only presidential decree that needs approval from the Assembly, is about state of emergency. When the day of declare of the state of emergency, the presidential decree shall submitted to Assembly. Assembly may reject or adopt the decree. If the Assembly has not issued or debated the decree within three months, the presidential decree automatically becomes annulled.

Right of Explanation

The committees and political party groups or deputies about whom offensive remarks are made or to whom an opinion which he or she has not expressed is attributed may give an explanation or respond. The person who requests to take the floor for the purpose of explanation or response informs the Speaker of the motivation of his or her request. Giving the floor is at the Speaker’s discretion. The Speaker determines the duration of the explanation and response which shall take place in the same session. If the person who has not been given the floor resists, the Plenary decides on the subject by show of hands without debate.

Debate on the Procedure

Article 95 of the Constitution states that “Grand National Assembly performs its activities according to the Rules of Procedure which is adopted by itself.” However, in some cases, there is no provision for very specific issues, or the existing provisions are not clear enough. In such cases, the debate on procedure is opened in order to determine the route the Plenary will take.

The purpose of the debate on procedure is to determine the compliance of the procedure with the existing rules, and to ensure that debates are held in accordance with the Rules of Procedure.

According to Article 63 of the Rules of Procedure, issues regarding procedure such as whether there is room for debate or not, calling the Speaker to comply with the agenda, or the working procedure of the Grand National Assembly of Türkiye, and advancing or setting back an issue, have priority of debate over other items.

Any deputy may demand a debate on the procedure. In practice, deputy leaders of the political party groups usually demand debates on the procedure.

If such request is tabled, the Speaker opens a debate on the procedure. At most two deputies, one in favor and another against, are given the floor for a period not exceeding three minutes. To decide the necessity of a vote after the debate on the procedure is at the discretion of the Speaker. If a vote is required as a result of the debate on the procedure, it shall be performed by show of hands.

Disciplinary Sanctions

Undisciplined words and acts of deputies during the plenary debates are subject to disciplinary sanctions. Disciplinary sanctions are warnings, reprimands and temporary suspension of the deputy from the Assembly.

Warning : Interruption of the speaker, breach of peace and order, and engaging in personalities are the actions that require the deputy being warned. The speaker has the right to issue and implement a warning. If the deputy warned by the Speaker wants to take the floor to defend himself or herself, he or she is given the floor at that sitting. The Speaker may remove the sanction if he or she considers the defense of the deputy sufficient. If a deputy is warned twice in the same sitting, the situation must be stated in the summary of the minutes. This deputy can be banned from speaking until the end of that sitting by the Plenary on a proposal of the Speaker.

Reprimand : Cases that require a reprimand are specified in the Rules of Procedure as follows:

  • Persisting in acts requiring a “warning” although already warned twice in the same sitting,
  • Being warned three times in a month,
  • Using rude and insulting words,
  • Physical attack,
  • Causing noise and disorder in the Assembly or inciting a collective action with the aim of preventing the Assembly from performing its functions.

The reprimand may be issued by the Plenary on the proposal of the Speaker. Any deputy against whom a reprimand is proposed may defend himself or herself individually or assign another deputy to do so. A reprimand is recorded in the summary of minutes.

Temporary Suspension from the Assembly : The cases that require the suspension of a deputy from the Assembly are the following:

  • Being reprimanded three times during the same sitting,
  • Being reprimanded five times in a month,
  • Insulting. or swearing at, or threatening the President, the Assembly, the Speaker, the Bureau, the vice-speaker serving as the Presiding Officer, or swearing at the Republic of Türkiye or the constitutional order during the debates,
  • Encouraging or inciting people, state forces or public organs, institutions and officials to illegal actions or riots against constitutional order,
  • Entering the precincts of the Assembly armed,
  • Acting illegally in the parliamentary buildings and on the campus.

The Plenary suspends the deputy from the Assembly for a maximum of three sittings on the proposal of the presiding officer chairing the sitting. The deputy who has been suspended from the Assembly can defend himself or herself individually in the Plenary or assign another deputy to defend him or her. The sanction is recorded in the summary of the minutes.

A deputy temporarily suspended from the Assembly cannot participate in the meetings of the Plenary, committee, Bureau or Board of Spokespersons for the duration of the sanction. When a deputy temporarily suspended from the Assembly presents a clear apology in the Plenary, he gains the right to participate in the parliamentary business.

Representation of the Executive Body in the Plenary

The transition from the parliamentary system to the presidential system has naturally led to a change in the representation of the executive body in the Plenary. According to the Rules of the Procedure, the executive body is allowed to attend the Plenary in the cases as mentioned below:

  • A vice president or a minister shall make the budget presentation speech on behalf of the executive in the Plenary.
  • Vice presidents and ministers may participate in the Plenary sessions where the budget and final accounts bills are discussed and may express their opinions.
  • When the state of emergency is discussed, vice presidents, ministers, vice ministers and high-ranking executives may participate in the Plenary upon the invitation of the Speaker in order to inform the deputies.
  • In case the President of the Republic, the vice presidents and ministers request to speak out of agenda in extraordinarily urgent circumstances, the Speaker meets this demand.

Except above-mentioned exceptional circumstances, the executive body is not allowed to attend the Plenary.

Publication of Laws

The bills become laws when they are accepted by the Assembly. However, the laws must be published in the Official Gazette in order to be binding and to be enforced.

Laws are forwarded to the President of the Republic to be published in the Official Gazette within 15 days. If the President does not deem it appropriate to publish the bill as a whole or in part, he or she may send it back to the Assembly for re-consideration with his or her justification. However, the President cannot send the budget bills back to the Assembly for re-consideration.

If the President does not approve the publication of the bill in part, the Assembly may debate only the articles that are not approved or the bill as a whole. The Assembly may adopt the text with or without amendments after this debate. If the Assembly accepts the law without amendment with absolute majority, the President has to publish it in the Official Gazette. If the Assembly accepts the law with amendments, the President has the right to send the law back to the Assembly.

Entry into Force

The date of entry into force shall be clearly stated in the laws. A date for entry into force can be determined for the bill as a whole, or different dates may be determined for the different articles of the bill. The laws in which the dates of entry into force are not determined shall enter into force the same day of their publication in the Official Gazette.